This report offers a critical view through the lens of human rights, democracy and the rule of law. It begins with an introduction to AI (what it is and how it works) and to the connections between AI and education: “learning with AI” (learner-supporting, teacher-supporting and system-supporting AI), using AI to “learn about learning” (sometimes known as learning analytics) and “learning about AI” (repositioned as the human and technological dimensions of AI literacy). In Part II, it examines some key challenges for AI&ED. These include the choice of pedagogy adopted by typical AIED applications, the impact of AIED applications on the developing brain and learner agency, the use of emotion detection and other techniques that might constitute surveillance, digital safeguarding, the ethics of AI&ED, the political and economic drivers of the uptake of AI in educational contexts and AIED colonialism.
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